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Real Estate
Ownership Structures

Real estate entity structuring refers to the process of choosing and organizing a legal and tax entity for the ownership and operation of real estate assets. The goal of entity structuring is to optimize the real estate investor's financial position, achieve tax efficiency, and provide appropriate liability protection.

Tax Efficiency

Different entity structures offer varying tax implications. Choosing the right structure can result in reduced overall tax liability, taking advantage of favorable tax treatments, deductions, and credits.

Liability Protection

Entity structuring helps shield personal assets from the debts and legal liabilities associated with real estate investments. Limited liability entities, such as LLCs, provide a level of protection against personal liability.

Risk Management

Careful entity structuring contributes to risk management by segregating assets and liabilities, preventing issues in one property from affecting the entirety of an investor's portfolio.

Pass-Through Taxation

Many real estate entity structures, such as partnerships and limited liability companies (LLCs), provide pass-through taxation. This means that profits and losses flow through to the individual owners' tax returns, avoiding double taxation at the entity level.

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Real estate entity structuring 

Designed to optimize the real estate investor's financial position, achieve tax efficiency, and provide appropriate liability protection.

Common legal entities used in real estate entity structuring include:

Sole Proprietorship:

A single individual owns and operates the real estate. While simple, it provides no liability protection.


Two or more individuals or entities join together to own and manage real estate. Partnerships offer pass-through taxation and flexibility in management.

Limited Liability Company (LLC):

An LLC combines the liability protection of a corporation with the simplicity and tax flexibility of a partnership. It is a popular choice for real estate investors.

Corporation (C Corporation or S Corporation):

Corporations are separate legal entities with their own tax structures. C Corporations face double taxation, while S Corporations offer pass-through taxation but have certain restrictions on ownership.

Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT):

A specialized corporate structure that allows investors to pool funds to invest in income-generating real estate. REITs are subject to specific tax rules, including the requirement to distribute at least 90% of taxable income to shareholders.

Limited Partnership (LP):

A partnership with both general partners (with management authority and unlimited liability) and limited partners (with limited liability but no management authority).

Family Limited Partnership (FLP) or Family Limited Liability Company (LLC):

Entities used in estate planning to transfer family wealth, offering control and tax benefits.


Certain types of trusts, such as land trusts or revocable living trusts, are used for specific real estate ownership and management purposes.

The choice of entity structure depends on various factors, including the investor's goals, the nature of the real estate portfolio, the number of investors involved, and the desired tax treatment. Entity structuring provides benefits such as liability protection, tax advantages, flexibility in management, and estate planning opportunities. It's a critical decision that should be made in consultation with legal and tax professionals.

Book a Free Online Consultation to ensure your choice of entity structures is in compliance with regulations and in alignment with your objectives.



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